雅思写作词汇语法评分标准解析

2016年12月06日13:48  
 

今天新东方在线的刘丽老师就将从语法词汇角度分析, 为什么雅思写作7分,可望而不可及?

很多学员雅思都会卡在写作上,大部分学校都要求单科不能低于6,而写作千年5.5,还有学生想要4个7,而写作也是考了n次都差那么一点点。我们今天从语法和词汇的角度分析一下刘丽老师今天就从语法和词汇的角度分析一下,写作6分,7分的词汇语法到底应该是什么样的。

雅思写作中词汇评分标准

lexical resource

官方给出的7分评分标准:

*uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision

*uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation

*may produce occasional errors in word choice, spelling and /or word formation

官方给出的6分评分标准:

*uses an adequate range of vocabulary for the task

*attempts to use less common vocabulary but with some inaccuracy

*makes some errors in spelling and /or word formation, but they do not impede communication

同六分词汇标准相比,7 分多了两个要求: flexibility (灵活性) and precision (准确性)。灵活性暗示我们在作文中要设置同意替换词 。比如, 第一段写了developing countries, 第二段就可以用these nations, 第三段可以用poor regions

准确性 指在该题目下贴切的,核心的词汇 。比如政府话题写出welffare 福利一词,环保话题写出environmental-friendly 一词。

7分和6分同时要求:要有less common lexical items, 不普通的,含义较深刻的词汇。比如undermine ( v. 逐渐破坏)代替damage; 用dilemma 代替problem。用的好不好,地道不地道,是否注意到了style( 文体) 和 collocation (搭配)决定了是6还是7.

所以在写作中,词汇在准确使用的基础上,我们一定要注意设置同意替换词。在练习时我们就要不断积累同意替换词,在经常使用的单词上多想想,还可以替换什么样的词和表达方式。

给出一些写作中常见的一些同意替换词:

人们 people /the public /individuals /citizens

年轻? the young /juvenile /youth /teenager

年人 the old / the elderly /senior citizens / the aged

员? workers /employees /staff / clerks

竞争对? /rivals /competitor /opponent /adversary /contender

特点,特征 trait /feature /attribute /characteristic /quality

结果,后果 outcome /result /consequence

缺乏,缺少 lack /shortage /insufficiency

标准,基准 benchmark /standard /criteria

大量的 a lot of /enormous /plenty of

可行的,可操作的 practical /feasible /workable /usable

重要的 important /essential /crucial /critical /key /pivotal

产?,造成 produce /generate /create /trigger /pose /engender

解决,处理 solve /settle /tackle /handle /cope with

使?,利用 use /utilize /employ /exploit /harness

支持,资助 support /sponsor /back up /subsidize /finance

提高,推动,加强 improve /promote /enhance /strengthen /facilitate /boost

改变,转变 change /shift /alter /transform /convert

重视,强调 highlight /emphasis /underline /underscore pay/draw attention to

忽视,轻视 ignore /neglect /overlook /underestimate

雅思写作中语法评分标准

grammar range and accuracy

7 7分评分标准:使用多种多样的复合句

*use a variety of complex structures

*produces frequent error-free sentences

*has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors.

(那么什么算是a variety of 呢?3种以上才称得上 a variety of,所以写作中要写出4种以上不同的从句。 剑桥书后的考官范文,平均每篇12 句话,2句话是简单句,2句话是并列句,其余8句都是各种从句)

6分评分标准:简单句和复合句的混合使用

*uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms

*makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication

英文句式:简单句,并列句, 限制性定语从句=分词做定语,非限制性定语从句,名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句), 状语从句=分词做状语,强调句,倒装句,插入语结构, 双重否定表肯定结构

在写作中,我们要熟练,正确,恰当的应用多种句式与结构。 当然除了句式我们还有时态,准确恰当运用各种时态在简单句和复合句中。

我们从一些例句中,学习一下语法句式可以如何转换。

1.With the rapid development of economy, the environment has been deteriorated . (主+谓的简单句)

= As the economy develops rapidly, the environment has been deteriorated. (as引导的时间状语从句)

2. Experts suggest the government to take down the old buildings in the urban center in order to improve the city image. (主 +谓+ 宾+宾补的简单句)

= Experts suggest that the government should tear down urban old buildings in order to enhance the image of this city. (that引导的宾语从句)

3. People who live in the city could enjoy enormous living benefits.(定语从句)

= People living in the city could enjoy enormous living benefits. (现在分词做定语)

4. The money which was spent on wild animals protection should have been used to improve human lives . (定语从句)

=The money spent on wild animal protection should have been used to improve human lives. (过去分词做定语)

5. Space exploration is by no means inexpensive. It could exert heavy financial burden on the government. (两个简单句)

= Space exploration, which is by no means inexpensive, could exert heavy financial burden on the government. (非限定性定语从句)

6. Some people think that the advantages of studying abroad overweigh its disadvantages. (宾语从句)

= Some people hold the belief that the benefits of studying abroad outweigh its drawbacks. (同位语从句)

7. = When the hotline was put into use in April, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. (时间状语从句)

=Put into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns.( 分词短语作时间状语)

8.Because she was blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. (原因状语从句)

=Blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits. (分词短语作原因状语)

9. The factories near the living quarters emit plenty of toxic gas and pollute the environment. (简单句)

=The factories near the living quarters emit plenty of toxic gas, polluting the environment. 现在分词做伴随状语

10. Spring came on, and the trees turned green. (并列句)

= when spring came on, the trees turned green .(. 时间状语从句)

=Spring coming on, the trees turned green. (独立主格结构)

11.I seldom visited my grandparents with my patents since i lived in a different city.(简单句)

=Seldom did I visit my grandparents with my patents since I lived in a different city. (倒装句)

14.I understand that you love me best in the world only through this crisis.

(宾语从句)

= Only through this crisis do I understand that you love me best in the world.

(倒装句)

15. Cars and factories release a great deal of gases and pollute the environment.

(简单句)

=It is cars and factories that release a great deal of gases, polluting the environment.

(强调句)

16. Topics of punishment of criminals always arouse people’s attention. (简单句)

=Topics of the punishment of criminals never fail to arouse people’s attention.

(双重否表肯定)

= Never do topics of the punishment of criminals fail to arouse people’s attention. (倒装句)

通过这些例句,学生应该可以看到从简单句到复合句式的转换,句式的多样性,是保证一篇作文取得高分的硬性要求,也是一个学生语言高水平的体现。

来源:新东方在线

(责编:郝孟佳、熊旭)

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