人民網>>教育>>教育專題>>人民網高考站-高考試題 高考成績 分數線 招生錄取 高校信息 志願填報 高考狀元>>高考加油站

閱讀理解 主旨大意 —— 英語高考糾錯
智卓教育
  2008年02月03日11:09 【字號 】【留言】【論壇】【打印】【關閉
 

  要點導讀:

  語法篇:誤點總結,從易到難,從詞匯到句式,從時態到語態,關關糾錯,題題把關,不再為語法搖頭﹔完形填空篇:誤點分類、歸結錯誤題型,樣題精講、領會解題要領,誤區警示、明了防范措施,試題闖關、保障滿分考場﹔閱讀理解篇:閱讀是難點,也是重點,得分容易,失分更易,如何保障隻得不失?以成功者為鑒,以教師講解為引,以自己學習為主,高考志在必得﹔書面表達篇:寫作,篇幅雖小,五臟俱全,決定能否智贏高考的最后一道關卡。5名狀元的經驗總結,5位老師的精心糾錯,名校模擬的重點訓練,為考場勝利護航。

  閱讀理解?主旨大意

  一.狀元筆記薄

  該類型的閱讀理解題比較難,是提高高考英語閱讀理解訓練的一個重要的突破口,容易犯的錯誤如下:

  1.以偏概全,以部分代替整體。如:將文章的某個段落的主要內容與文章的主要內容混為一團。

  2.以文章討論問題的某個方面的篇幅大小,來確定文章的主旨大意,不分析文章的結構﹔這是我們很多人常見的錯誤,覺得文章的該部分內容講述的多,就一定是文章的主要內容。

  3.不能准確定位每個段落的主題句,或能夠確定這些主題句,但不能清楚明白的弄清它們之間的如因果關系,遞進關系等這些段落之間的緊密聯系。不能通篇考慮文章,將段落與段落孤立開來。

  4.對該類題常見的標志不熟悉,該類題通常最顯著的標志是:what’s the best title/ what’s the main idea … of the passage ; the passage mainly discusses…等,易與推理判斷類型的問題當作一類,混淆兩類題的得做題技巧,也容易錯選其它答案。

  二.名師糾錯本

  樣題1 In the past, young people in Japan were expected to take on responsibilities to support their parents and grandparents. Now they expect to be supported well into young adulthood. The "new breed", born since the 1960s, have never known anything but richness. Youth are seen as resistant to entering society as mature adults, to becoming social citizens. Once the great objective of reconstruction after the Second World War was accomplished, a new generation lost the motivating power that had united the nation together.

  Japan's birth rate has been failing rapidly, partly because of economic decline, and the job and financial insecurity that it has caused. In 1999, the figure was1.38 children per woman, the lowest ever recorded. At the same time, youth crime, although still especially low by western standards, rose to its highest level since record-keeping began 32 years ago. Likewise, the proportion of students dropping out before graduating, at 2.5% also Very low by western standards, has nevertheless been rising.

  Entrepreneurial (企業家的) role models are few and far between. Bill Gates is often mentioned, but a foreign model can only have so much influence. The problem is that Japanese culture discourages people from revealing details of personal life, including such difficult or painful experience as starting a company. In the past, successful companies such as Honda or Hita-chi provided role models of a sort. But today they have been faded by the downturn, and few others have risen to take their place.

  By the same reason, young people often feel isolated from their fathers, who worked too hard at their jobs to establish much of a relationship with their children. "The one thing they're sure of is that they don't want to be like their fathers. And the girls don't want to be with boys who are like their fathers, so the boys are sure not to be," says Professor Morishima.

  1. The passage mainly discusses .

  A. the decline of the Japanese economy

  B. the great change of the ethnical and value concept of youth in Japan

  C. the existence of generation gap between youth and their parents

  D. the increase of birth rate

  【錯因分析】對各個答案部分所說明的問題不能准確地分析出來,從而把握不准該文章的主要內容。

  【正確答案】 B 文章通過年輕人在社會生活中的一些表現,如:日本出生率的下降,少年犯罪率和輟學率的上升等例子說明了日本年輕人的道德觀與價值觀的變化,故選B項。要分清現象與本質。

  【思路導航】該類題屬於對文章的主旨大意進行判斷的,要弄清作者的寫作意圖,同時,要有熟練的解題技巧。 該題可以通過找中心詞或中心短語的方法。即A (Japanese economy) ;B (great change)﹔C(generation gap)﹔D(birth rate).這樣簡化后,答題容易多了。

  樣題2 Animals can move from place to place, but plants cannot. When an animal is under attack, it can run away or fight back. Plants certainly cannot run away, and they lack teeth and claws. But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means.

  Some plants have their own ways to keep animals away. For example, the leaves of the holly plant have sharp spines(刺)that discourage grass-eating animals. Holly leaves on lower branches have more spines than leaves on upper branches. This is because the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach.

  Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat. Some grasses may contain a sandy material; eating such grasses wears down the animal’s teeth.

  Many plants also have chemical defenses. Some plants produce chemicals that taste bitter or cause an unpleasant reaction. Some plants may fight against an attack by increasing the production of these chemicals. When a caterpillar(毛虫)bites a tobacco leaf, the leaf produces a chemical messenger. This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine. The higher levels of nicotine discourage the caterpillar.

  Many plants depend on both physical and chemical defenses. A certain plant in China, for instance, has prickly(多刺的)leaves, and each prickle contains poisonous venom(毒液). A single experience with this kind of plant will teach an animal to stay away from it in the future.

  2. What would be the best title for this passage? _________

  A. Plants and Animals B. How Plants Defend Themselves

  C. Attacks and Defenses D. How Animals Eat Plant Leaves

  【錯因分析】文章基本結構理解不清,不明白文章採用的是何結構。

  【正確答案】B 弄清文章採用的總--分結構。都是圍繞植物是如何保護自己的這一話題展開的。

  【思路導航】 該題可以採用分析文章結構的方法,顯然,本文採用了總---分的結構,了解這一結構,自然就能夠明白文章的話題。這是做該題型的一種非常重要的方法。希望能熟練掌握。

  

【1】 【2】 【3】 【4】 【5】

 

來源:人民網-教育頻道 (責任編輯:李棟)


相關專題
· 人民網高考站-高考試題 高考成績 分數線 招生錄取 高校信息 志願填報 高考狀元

打印文本   我要糾錯  查看留言   強國社區   給編輯寫信    E-mail推薦
 

請注意:
1.遵守中華人民共和國有關法律、法規,尊重網上道德,承擔一切因您的行為而直接或間接引起的法律責任。
2.人民網擁有管理筆名和留言的一切權力。
3.您在人民網留言板發表的言論,人民網有權在網站內轉載或引用。
4.如您對管理有意見請向留言板管理員人民日報網絡中心反映。

新聞排行榜


鏡像:日本  教育網  科技網
E-mail:info@peopledaily.com.cn 新聞線索:rm@peopledaily.com.cn

人民日報社概況 | 關於人民網 | 招聘英才 | 幫助中心 | 廣告服務 | 合作加盟 | 網站聲明 | 網站律師 | 聯系我們 | ENGLISH 
京ICP証000006號|
網上傳播視聽節目許可証(0104065)| 京朝工商廣字第0394號
人 民 網 版 權 所 有 ,未 經 書 面 授 權 禁 止 使 用
Copyright © 1997-2007 by www.people.com.cn. all rights reserved