4.對該類題常見的標志不熟悉，該類題通常最顯著的標志是：what’s the best title/ what’s the main idea … of the passage ; the passage mainly discusses…等，易與推理判斷類型的問題當作一類，混淆兩類題的得做題技巧，也容易錯選其它答案。
樣題1 In the past, young people in Japan were expected to take on responsibilities to support their parents and grandparents. Now they expect to be supported well into young adulthood. The "new breed", born since the 1960s, have never known anything but richness. Youth are seen as resistant to entering society as mature adults, to becoming social citizens. Once the great objective of reconstruction after the Second World War was accomplished, a new generation lost the motivating power that had united the nation together.
Japan's birth rate has been failing rapidly, partly because of economic decline, and the job and financial insecurity that it has caused. In 1999, the figure was1.38 children per woman, the lowest ever recorded. At the same time, youth crime, although still especially low by western standards, rose to its highest level since record-keeping began 32 years ago. Likewise, the proportion of students dropping out before graduating, at 2.5％ also Very low by western standards, has nevertheless been rising.
Entrepreneurial (企業家的) role models are few and far between. Bill Gates is often mentioned, but a foreign model can only have so much influence. The problem is that Japanese culture discourages people from revealing details of personal life, including such difficult or painful experience as starting a company. In the past, successful companies such as Honda or Hita-chi provided role models of a sort. But today they have been faded by the downturn, and few others have risen to take their place.
By the same reason, young people often feel isolated from their fathers, who worked too hard at their jobs to establish much of a relationship with their children. "The one thing they're sure of is that they don't want to be like their fathers. And the girls don't want to be with boys who are like their fathers, so the boys are sure not to be," says Professor Morishima.
1. The passage mainly discusses .
A. the decline of the Japanese economy
B. the great change of the ethnical and value concept of youth in Japan
C. the existence of generation gap between youth and their parents
D. the increase of birth rate
【正確答案】 B 文章通過年輕人在社會生活中的一些表現，如：日本出生率的下降，少年犯罪率和輟學率的上升等例子說明了日本年輕人的道德觀與價值觀的變化，故選B項。要分清現象與本質。
【思路導航】該類題屬於對文章的主旨大意進行判斷的，要弄清作者的寫作意圖，同時，要有熟練的解題技巧。 該題可以通過找中心詞或中心短語的方法。即A (Japanese economy) ;B (great change)﹔Ｃ（generation gap）﹔Ｄ（birth rate）．這樣簡化后，答題容易多了。
樣題2 Animals can move from place to place, but plants cannot. When an animal is under attack, it can run away or fight back. Plants certainly cannot run away, and they lack teeth and claws. But plants can defend themselves by using both physical and chemical means.
Some plants have their own ways to keep animals away. For example, the leaves of the holly plant have sharp spines（刺）that discourage grass-eating animals. Holly leaves on lower branches have more spines than leaves on upper branches. This is because the lower leaves are easier for most animals to reach.
Some plants, such as the oak tree, have thick and hard leaves that are difficult for animals to eat. Some grasses may contain a sandy material; eating such grasses wears down the animal’s teeth.
Many plants also have chemical defenses. Some plants produce chemicals that taste bitter or cause an unpleasant reaction. Some plants may fight against an attack by increasing the production of these chemicals. When a caterpillar（毛虫）bites a tobacco leaf, the leaf produces a chemical messenger. This messenger sends to the roots the information to produce more nicotine. The higher levels of nicotine discourage the caterpillar.
Many plants depend on both physical and chemical defenses. A certain plant in China, for instance, has prickly（多刺的）leaves, and each prickle contains poisonous venom（毒液）. A single experience with this kind of plant will teach an animal to stay away from it in the future.
2. What would be the best title for this passage? _________
A. Plants and Animals B. How Plants Defend Themselves
C. Attacks and Defenses D. How Animals Eat Plant Leaves
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